Many terms have been used to describe the flat foot. Some of the more common ones are pes planus, planovalgus, calcaneo-valgus, and fallen arches. The human foot has 26 bones, 10 major extrinsic tendons and their respective muscles, numerous intrinsic musculotendinous units, and more than 30 joints. These musculoskeletal structures work together with the neurovascular elements, fat pads, and skin to provide a mobile, sensate, adaptive foundation during standing and to provide a means of balance and locomotion during gait. Flat foot describes the common end point of any abnormality that causes the medial longitudinal arch to collapse. Flatfeet can cause severe symptoms or be asymptomatic. Flat foot is now considered a normal variant assuming it functions in its normal capacity without symptoms.
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